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Network Propositions
2300 - 2399


2300
Laws of countries are of three kinds, namely statute law, common law, and the law of equity. Statute law derives from enactments of the legislature or edicts of authority; common law derives from court rulings and social precedents; and the law of equity derives from a moral conception of what is right and just.


2301
For laws to be effective, they must be:


2302
In countries where laws are ineffective, social order deteriorates. When social order starts to deteriorate, the downward trend quickens and it becomes extremely difficult to restore order to old levels.


2303
Judgements of international courts of justice are only enforceable when recognised by the governments of the countries concerned: Such judgements are largely ineffective.


2304
Where national boundaries are set by edict of major powers or international authorities or by peace conventions, they are usually treated as static and unalterable. However, populations change constantly, across a wide spectrum of variables, and socio-political pressures ensue which indicate the need to adjust old boundaries.


2305
Where ethnic or other factors indicate a need to alter national boundaries, and such need is ignored, socio-political strife is likely to develop and to escalate.


2306
The dictum 'might is right' tends to be the pragmatic rule in respect of national boundaries. Alteration of such boundaries is usually achieved only by force majeure.


2307
There is no effective international authority to which minority groups can appeal effectively for the redress of wrongs. For instance, there is no way that the Kurdish peoples can gain justice by legal means.


2308
The United Nations is dominated by the major powers and tends to act in their interests.


2309
It is an accepted rule that the United Nations will not interfere in the internal affairs of any of its member states, even when there are obvious abuses of human rights.


2310
The United Nations is hampered also by shortage of funds; lack of consensus (re courses of action and priorities); inertia and bureaucratic incompetence.


2311
With each successive year, the United Nations will be confronted with greater challenges and burdens ... and will fail, by an increasing margin, to handle all its tasks effectively.


2312
From 1992 onwards, the European Community will proceed to disintegrate, by reason of increasing social entropy and by reason of the following more specific factors:


2313
The average person's creed is the creed of common sense. 'Laissez-faire', 'communism', 'unionism', 'conservatism'. 'liberalism', 'fascism' and all the other abstract creeds are like fashions and fads which come and go ... but the unfailing and everlasting creed of the common man is common sense.


2314
'Peoples democracy' is in effect when the government governs according to the will of the people, week by week and day by day. 'Authoritarian democracy' is in effect when the government, after its election, governs according to its own will, rather than according to the will of the people. The first is predicated upon the proposition that the will of the people is always paramount: The second is predicated upon the proposition that the government knows better than the people what is in the peoples' best interests.


2315
In the same way in which anything is constituted, it may be destroyed.


2316
The express mention of one person or thing is the exclusion of another.


2317
What is expressed makes what is silent to cease.


2318
The condition of the defendant is to be favoured rather than that of the plaintiff.


2319
Happy is he who can apprehend the causes of things.


2320
It is the same not to exist as not to appear.


2321
In cases of extreme necessity, everything is in common.


2322
In customs, not only the length of time but the strength of the reason should be considered.


2323
The indefinite equals the universal.


2324
In law, every definition is dangerous.


2325
In everything, but especially in law, equity is to be regarded.


2326
In everything is born that which destroys the thing itself.


2327
In the presence of the greater, the power of the inferior ceases.


2328
No one is compelled to accuse himself, except before God.


2329
Equity is a sort of perfect reason which interprets and amends written law ... and it comprehends no code, and it is consistent with reason alone.


2330
Intention is the soul of a legal instrument.


2331
An argument from authority is most powerful in law.


2332
An argument from the greater to the lesser is of no force negatively; affirmatively it is.


2333
A good judge prefers equity to strict law.


2334
At law, a delegated power cannot be delegated. In management, a delegate may delegate his duties but not his responsibilities.


2335
Law is the dictate of reason.


2336
The law of necessity is the (only) law for the time that is, for the instant.


2337
The law is most worthy of approval when it is consonant to reason.


2338
The law rejects superfluous, contradictory, and incongruous things.


2339
In the eyes of the law, liberty is an inestimable thing.


2340
Allegiance is the bond of fealty, which is the essence of law.


2341
Natural allegiance is restrained by no barriers, reined by no bounds, stopped by no limits.


2342
It is better to go to the fountain-head than to follow the streams.


2343
A manor is called from 'manendo', according to its excellence, a seat, great, fixed, and firm.


2344
The people is the greatest master of error.


2345
He threatens the innocent who spares the guilty.


2346
Obedience to law becomes a hardship when the law is unsettled or doubtful.


2347
Many things are obliquely conceded which are not conceded directly.


2348
A multitude of masters destroys their dominion.


2349
No one can rightly understand any part until he has read the whole again and again.


2350
No man warring for God should be associated with secular business.


2351
No one should be punished for the crime of another.


2352
Nothing is so opposed to consent as force and fear.


2353
Nothing is so agreeable to natural equity as that, by the like means by which anything is bound, it may be loosed.


2354
A man having a power may do less than such power enables him to do.


2355
He is not deceived who knows himself to be deceived.


2356
We cannot reason with a man who denies first principles.


2357
The laws consist not in being read, but in being understood.


2358
The authority of no man ought to prevail with us, so that we should not adopt better things, if another bring them.


2359
An equal has no authority over an equal.


2360
It avails little to know what ought to be done if you do not know how it is to be done.


2361
One eye-witness is better than ten ear-witnesses.


2362
Of principles there is no rule.


2363
Protection begets subjection, and subjection begets protection.


2364
Those things which are spoken to one end, ought not to be perverted to another.


2365
When anything is prohibited directly, it is also prohibited indirectly.


2366
Where a law is special, but its reason general, the law is to be understood generally.


2367
He who decides anything, one party being unheard, though he decide rightly, does wrong.


2368
He who does anything by another does it by himself.


2369
They who search for reason in all things subvert reason.


2370
He who is silent appears to consent.


2371
Whatever one does in defence of his person, that he is considered to have done legally.


2372
Where you doubt, do nothing.


2373
What is understood is not lacking.


2374
Reason is the soul of law; the reason of law being changed, the law is also changed.


2375
The kingdom is not divisible.


2376
Everyone is the manager and judge of his own affairs.


2377
The value of a thing is estimated according to its worth in money; but the value of money is not estimated by reference to the thing.


2378
The welfare of the people, or of the public, is supreme law.


2379
It is natural that the advantages of anything should follow him to whom the disadvantages follow.


2380
The laws are silent amidst arms.


2381
Simony is the will or desire of buying or selling spiritualities, or things pertaining thereto. Contracts of simony are founded on a bad cause, and they are against morality. Simony is an ecclesiastical word, derived from that Simon Magus who thought to buy the gift of the Holy Ghost with money.


2382
The highest rule is that which advances religion.


2383
That part is bad which accords not with its whole.


2384
Witnesses cannot prove a negative, but an affirmative.


2385
That guardianship is secure which trusts to itself alone.


2386
It is always safer to err in acquitting than in punishing: On the side of mercy, than of strict justice.


2387
That which is useful is not rendered useless by that which is useless.


2388
Though few are punished, the fear of punishment affects all.


2389
Words ought to have some effect; they ought to be interpreted in such a way as to give them some effect.


2390
Words are to be understood according to their effect.


2391
Words ought to be made subservient to the intent, not contrary to it.


2392
Words inferred are to be considered as incorporated.


2393
Subsequent words, added for the purpose of certainty, are to be referred to preceding words which need certainty.


2394
Truth, by whomsoever pronounced, is from God.


2395
Truth fears nothing but concealment.


2396
By too much altercation truth may be lost.


2397
Common opinion is double ... namely, that proceeding from grave and discreet men, which has much truth in it, and that proceeding from foolish and vulgar men, without any semblance of truth in it.


2398
The vigilant, and not the sleepy, are assisted by the laws of society.


2399
It is a bad exposition which corrupts the text.


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