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A false argument may err either in the thoughts expressed or in the words or other symbols which express them.
Fallacies, due to thought, rather than to language, include:
- Confusion of essential and accidental qualities.
- Failure to understand qualifications and limitations of propositions or concepts.
- Reasoning in support of wrong conclusions.
- Non sequitur conclusions ... that is, the assumption of consequences which do not necessarily follow from the premisses.
- The assumption of conclusions which are yet unproven ... that is, the treating of unproven assumptions as valid premisses.
- The inclusion, among valid inferences, of inferences which are not justified by the premisses.
- Dubious processes of thought aimed at obtaining a single answer to two or more questions asked as one.
Fallacies due to language, rather than to thought, include:
- Ambiguity of terms.
- Ambiguity of sentence construction.
- Ambiguity of emphasis.
- Ambiguity arising from use of metaphors.
It may be said that only a small percentage of the population is capable of clear, cogent, logical thought.
Most people have very little understanding of formal logic, nor have they much respect for it: They know intuitively that it is not adequate to the general human condition.
As to the cognitive aspects of perception, cognitive science and linguistic analysis are still in an unpromising pioneering phase, trying to remove ambiguities of meaning and interpretation. The successors of logical positivism are struggling manfully with their herculean task.
Ambiguities of meaning and interpretation are useful to the advancement of understanding. The dialectical conflicts, which result from ambiguities, are mentally prehensive: They explore, diversify and creatively expand knowledge.
The essential nature of mind, and mental processes, is transfinite. The mind perceives things both transfinitely and finitely ... and the finite aspects are subset and subserving to the transfinite mainset.
Without ill-intent, there is a tendency for logicians to seek to impose finite thought-models upon the transfinite functions of the mind: In so doing, they seek to limit the scope and power of our thinking.
Apart from deliberately mischievous uses of fallacious reasoning, people tend to think fallaciously: The processes of formal logic do not come naturally to them.
Our species is often practical ... yes!
Our species often uses common sense ... yes!
Our species is often instinctive yes!
Our species is often intuitive yes!
Our species is often logical ... no!
Knowledge seems to advance by stepping-stones of 'facts'. We discover a 'fact' and put it down as a stepping-stone, and we put our feet on it and advance and then discover another 'fact' and advance again and so on. Then, we look back and find that the 'facts' of past stepping-stones are now uncertain and hardly 'facts' at all.
That which we call a fact is a viewpoint or concept which serves its purpose for a time. A fact is a building block, of and for its time, which may not serve future needs and purposes. A fact is a working hypothesis ... it is a mental concept which is always subject to conceptual change.
Facts are working hypotheses: They are conceptual tools. Our evolving species starts with primitive concepts (tools) and refines and improves them over time.
It is important and noteworthy that all science and all knowledge is essentially instrumentalist.
The spiritual kingdom is of those who realise that they are spiritual beings: The kingdom of mammon is of those who see themselves as physical beings. The imperatives of these two kingdoms are categorically different. A person is either of the one kingdom or the other. Those of mammon, 'graduate' to the spiritual kingdom when they become sufficiently spiritually mature.
Experience is not expressible in terms of systems or abstract models.
Life is lived but cannot be copied, summarised, systemised, modelled or reasoned.
The very best understanding we can have of life is to be gained in the living of it: This is the essential concept of existentialism.
Existentialist philosophy calls for the honest recognition of existence as it is, from warts to sublimity, ... without pedantics, dogmatics, rationalisations, justifications, speculations or sophistry. Life cannot even be adequately described: It can only be known by living it.
Our species is tainted by the negative extremes of its qualities ... but its sublimity raises it above its taintedness.
Our species has capability, courage, fortitude and nobility adequate to eternal life.
Like the scouting ants, if one of us finds the means to survive, we will make sure that all survive ... and survive we will ... beyond the killings and beyond the dyings and beyond the coffins, we will survive ... for we humans are one eternal and unconquerable family.
We are never defeated: The Waterloo drummer boy still beats his drum as bullets rain about him; the Bowery alcoholic still clangs his iron bar against the iron post; old people still suffer on for years but refuse to give in: Bodies may fall aside, but we are never defeated ... for we are one eternal and unconquerable human family.
The schoolboy soldiers still advance into the guns at Ypres; mothers still die without food, that their children may live; drug addicts still battle hopelessly against their cravings: Bodies may fall aside, but we are never defeated ... for we are one eternal and unconquerable human family.
We are a self-made and self-making species ... and we make life as we want and need it to be. Life is neither good nor bad, or both good and bad: In any case, it is our life and we ourselves make it so.
In so far as this propositional network gains insights of life in the raw, it is existentialist.
Our reality is our living and our living species. All is our species, and all is real.
God is the impersonated ideal and bond-of-union of our species.
Trauma is heightened and extended attention.
The duration of attention equates time.
As it objectifies, trauma occasions time.
Trauma emphasises, intensifies and objectifies thought.
The time-span of our physical species is the period which it takes for its own detraumatisation.
Directly or indirectly, all thoughts are descriptive, judgemental, destructive, and creative.
Trust not abstractions!: One must constantly check them out against experience.
The 'big bang', of 15 billion years ago, created a traumatised physical universe. The present physical first-phase of our species siqnals the approaching end of the detraumatisation process, and the end of the physical universe.
As we detraumatise psychologically by re-running our traumatic experiences, so the universe detraumatises by rerunning its traumatic experiences. As the physical universe started with a real grandaddy of a nuclear explosion, it will finish with one also. The universal detraumatisation process entered its final augmentation with the 1945 nuclear advent.
Knowledge demasses energy: A classic example is the invention of nuclear bombs and explosive release of nuclear energy.
The 'big-bang' traumatised singularity to energy, and thence to mass-forms.
Traumatisation is a tensing and gathering of energy ... that is, a massing of energy.
As our species has evolved, as a knowledge-species, it has evolved as an ever more effective entropic agency.
Knowledge detenses and detraumatises: Our species is a detensing and detraumatising agency.
As our species gains more knowledge, it becomes a more effective detensing and detraumatising agency.
That which detraumatises is cathartic, and releases tension.
At the social level, increases of violence release tension: They are cathartic.
Conflict gathers and intensifies tension, and then releases it explosively and cathartically.
As modern society uses more energy, it calls for the release of more energy from enmassed state to kinetic state.
Electronic energy (kinetic energy) is semi-detensed or semi-detraumatised energy.
Protonic energy is tensed, traumatised, enmassed energy.
Electrons, which are in atomic orbit around proton nuclei, are semi-detraumatised energy.
Psychologically, catharsis is pleasurable ... being accompanied by relaxation and release of tension.
Traumas are accompanied by fears, phobias, worries and anxiety: Traumatic conditions are up-tight and defensive conditions.
Cathartic detraumatisation abates fears, phobias, worries and anxieties ... and people become less up-tight and defensive.
Catharsis is emotionally, mentally and spiritually pleasurable: It brings emotional, mental and spiritual gains, rather than physical gains.
The release of pent-up tensions is good for the psyche but may cause bodily harm, and even bodily death. Catharsis is an emotional, mental and spiritual phenomenon.
The forces of entropy/detraumatisation/catharsis are opposed to all restraints, rules and laws: They are anarchistic.
Our species, as to its net effects, is anarchistic, if we realise it or not.
Increasing anarchism is accompanied by increasing violence, civil wars, crime, and political and social laissez-faire.
Forces of reactive conservatism are the antitheses of dialectical conflict ... and they fuel, rather than abate, the entropic process.
The social forces of entropy reside in the people and are of the people: The forces of social negentropy (reaction) reside in the established government, which sees itself duty-bound to maintain law and order. In a democracy, there is an inevitable conflict between the people and the government: This conflict is one aspect of the entropic/negentropic dialectic.
As knowledge increases, respect for law and order decreases.
Knowledge analyses the processes of law and, by dissection, justice is progressively rendered more ineffective: The processes of justice become mere intellectual games between legal protagonists ... and the pragmatics of superior knowledge prevail over the intrinsic ethical qualities of justice.
As awareness becomes released from trauma, it spiritualises: The spirit is free energy ... that is free quality.
Self-awareness is qualitative and free.
Potential spirit is enmassed quality: Realised spirit is free, unmassed quality.
The present era is an era of spiritual revolution: The spirit is rebelling against material entrapment, and is breaking free.
From a material point of view, everything seems chaotic and even negative ... but, from a spiritual point of view, everything makes sense and is very positive. In modern idiom, the human spirit is where it is all at.
Knowledge releases the human spirit from potential to realised actuality. Knowledge frees the human spirit.
Catharsis releases and augments the human spirit.
Where does institutionalised religion stand in all this? most churches are stanced like the Sadducees, as protectors of written law: They are the religious establishment ... the upholders of religious law. The spiritual revolt is of the free unfettered human spirit and has nothing to do with the concept of law, in any shape or form.
Christ said, 'the wind bloweth where it listeth and thou hearest the sound thereof, but cans't not tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth: So is every one who is born of the spirit'. So it is that the free human spirit is not subject to any law.
According to the realised quality of a person is the quality of that person's religious faith and beliefs.
According to the qualitative insight of a person is the quality and nature of that person's God.
Existence is an absolute, which is wholly in each thing and event: Each thing and event is an absolute signature to all which is, of past/present/future. One is able to predict the future by the reading of absolute signatures ... that is, by insightful perception of things and events.
Essentially, the creative intelligence is a raw creative spirit ... which surges, opposes itself, leap-frogs upon itself, deflects, swirls, vortexes, vectors, divides, differentiates, synthesises, gestalts, explores, imagines, intuits, meditates, gestates, generates, gathers, creates, disperses, sucks, pushes, caresses ... and there is no end to the variety of its actions and ploys. When it feels some attempt (by its own self) to encompass it, it dodges and swerves and turns and squirms ... and refuses to be in any way circumscribed.
The Father says ... I have created thee to be mine house that I may dwell therein. I shall never forsake thee. Truly thou art to me as mine own self.
In relation to mental and spiritual activities, creativity involves a fresh approach ... straight 'off the ice', without copying others.
It is not only brainy people who create: Creativity is universal ... it is something we all share. The creative intelligence favours all manner of people: It pops up with discoveries and advances, at any place and via any person.
Any person, who is worth his or her salt, would be ashamed to the very soul, to be set up on a pedestal for worship and adoration.
The creative intelligence pulls in energy and accumulates it ... and tension builds up until this energy is released in a creative act, Every creative act is cathartic.
Destruction releases tension: The greater the explosion, the greater the release of tension. Every destructive act is cathartic.
Give up hope?: What a ridiculous thought! Our species made hope, of and within itself, and even made the need for hope: It is a hallmark of our species and the heartbeat of our eternal life. Give it up?: What a nonsensical notion!
Physical forms are not the only forms of expression.
The homogeneity of physical singularity is consistent with spiritual diversity.
The traumatising/detraumatising creation/dispersal of the physical universe is of the finite subsets of the absolute. While activity of these finite subsets is integral with the absolute, physical creation/dispersal does not involve or imply creation/dispersal of other subsets of the absolute.
The qualitative transfinite mental and spiritual subsets of the absolute are in but not of the finite physical phenomena: They survive the physical dispersal.
Energy is the carrier or bearer of quality. As our species becomes more evolved, it demands more and more quality ... and, to obtain more quality, it needs to obtain more energy.
The most qualitative societies are those which access the most energy, thereby accessing more quality.
The 'absent-minded professor' condition, of conscious absorbed thought, is a transfinite, timeless condition. Persons in this condition have no awareness of the passing of time ... and, when they return to ordinary consciousness, they are amazed to discover the amount of time which has elapsed.
From the viewpoint of the physical body, concentrated absorbed thought induces a time-warp.
The mental universe is of a different category from the physical time-space universe. In the mental universe there is no such thing as time and space: It is a transfinite universe.
From a biological point of view, a behaviour pattern may be treated like an anatomical organ.
To understand the actual, we must contemplate the possible.
Playing with an imaginary world may help us to understand the actual world. Much fiction is in this category.
Natural selection has no foresight.
Evolutionarily, living things are not selected for their capacity simply to stay alive: It is not enough to succeed ... others must fail.
Evolutionarily, animals which survived were not necessarily the optima but the better of the alternatives that happened to inhabit a particular area at a particular time.
Each gene may be in conflict with every other gene, even those at other loci in the same cell.
Never go out on a limb that is too thin.
Evolutionarily, when species are in long-term survivalist opposition, innovative and/or enhanced genetic survival characteristics are evoked in the competing species. Such adaptations often tend to be countervailing.
Evolutionary trends towards larger body size are common.
Evolutionarily, progressive genetic improvements in adaptations in one lineage are responded to by countervailing improvements in an enemy lineage. Such competitive adaptations, taking place on a continuing basis, are analogous to an arms-race.
The rabbit runs faster than the fox, because the rabbit is running for its life, while the fox is only running for its dinner.
In any particular arms-race, individuals on one side may have more to lose than individuals on the other side.
Once slaves have arrived in the slave-makers' nest, they effectively drop out of the arms-race, since they no longer have any power to influence the success of their reproductive relatives.
Genes are replicators: Organisms are vehicles in which replicators travel about.
The controversy over selection of genes versus selection of individual organisms, is whether evolution is about selection/survival of vehicles or replicators or both.
A replicator is anything of which copies are made: A DNA molecule is a replicator.
A DNA molecule is an active replicator, for it exerts influence (via protein synthesis) as to whether it is copied.
Does the human mind have the power to influence the behaviour of DNA molecules?
A germ-line replicator, which may be active or passive, is a replicator that is potentially the ancestor of an indefinitely long line of descendant replicators. Whenever active germ-line replicators are found, they are likely to become the basis for natural selection and evolution.
The germ-line replicator is the optimon (or selecton) ... that is, the gene component of natural selection.
Geneticists and natural selection are concerned with differences. Evolutionary change is a limited set of substitutions at identifiable loci.
The bodies that provided the past experience of existing genes are a non-random subset of all the bodies that have ever existed.
Genes exert an influence over the form of a body, but the form of a body is never translated back into genetic code.
Acquired characteristics are not inherited.
A genetic code is more like a recipe than a blueprint: A genetic code is a recognisable key-in or trigger for a ghost-blueprint, but this is not all ... a genetic code is not bound to develop organisms exactly to blueprint ... there is scope for mutations.
Evolutionarily, improved adaptation (by selection) needs mutation as the ultimate source of the variants from which it selects.
The term 'phenotype' refers to the manifested attributes of an organism, during its individual development, as joint product of genes and environment.
Evolutionarily, bio-perfection involves high costs and constraints: Survival patterns are invariably practical compromise solutions, involving something less than perfection.
Cultural evolution owes its origin to genetic evolution, but it has a momentum all its own.
The evolution of creative intelligence owes its origin to genetic evolution, but it has a momentum all its own.
Is the momentum of creative intelligence still subsidiary to its evolutionarily successful gene-streams, or has creative intelligence itself achieved the status of a powerful independent living entity?: Has it now gained the status of principal, rather than that of a manifestation of gene success?
The purpose of DNA is to survive, no more and no less.
A million million spermatozoa,
All of them alive:
Out of their cataclysm but one poor Noah
Dare hope to survive.'
Humans distrust each other, and some humans work against the best interests of other humans.
There is a struggle between those who wish to obtain illicit information and those who wish to withhold that information from them.
As information implies control and success, the withholding of useful information may be an instinctive bio-ploy.
Much of human technology is the product of 'arms races' and can only be understood in those terms.
There is a kind of molecular struggle for existence within the DNA of the chromosomes, using the process of natural selection.
Evolutionarily, intra-selection (the selective struggle among parts within the body) ensures that all parts inside the organism are of the best mutual proportions.
Adaptedness is an informal match between organism and environment. An animal that is well adapted to its environment can be regarded as embodying information about its environment, in the way that a key embodies information about the lock that it is built to undo. A camouflaged animal has been said to carry a picture of its environment on its back.
Genetic information may be translated from nucleic acid to protein, but not vice versa.
Bodily form and behaviour may not be translated back into protein.
It has been said that God and natural selection are the only two workable theories we have as to why we exist. (Note: This is probably a facetious statement: There are many questions concerning the meaning of 'God' and 'natural selection'.)
A genome is the entire collection of genes possessed by one organism. A genome is a set of instructions which, if faithfully obeyed in the right order and under the right conditions, will result in a body. It is a complex code which may induce or evoke a body.
An organisation's phenotype may extend to artefacts built by individual behaviour which is subject to genetic variation. An extended phenotype can also be built under the joint influence of genes in more than one individual body.
It is not known whether gene-behaviour is influenced by mind and/or other transfinite initiators.
An animal's behaviour tends to maximise the survival of the genes 'for' that behaviour, whether or not those genes happen to be in the body of the particular animal performing it.
The mutual dependence of all genes in a gene-pool is one of tight cohesion. No gene frequency can be changed, nor any gene be added to the gene-pool, without an effect on the genotype as a whole and, indirectly, on the selective value of other genes.
All genes exert power primarily by serving as templates for the synthesis of proteins. The locus of primary gene power is the cell and, in particular, the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus in which the gene sits.
There seems to be no important distinction between our 'own' genes and parasitic or symbiotic insertion sequences.
Messenger RNA streams through the nuclear membrane, and mediates genetic control over cytoplasmic biochemistry. The phenotypic expression of a gene is, in the first place, its influence on cytoplasmic biochemistry. In its turn, this influences the form and structure of the whole cell and its interactions with neighbouring cells.
Viruses have their own protein jacket, but they insert their DNA into the host's cell. Viruses are in a position to influence the cellular chemistry of the host at an intimate level.
The organism is a physically discrete machine, usually walled off from other such machines. It displays high individuality and indivisibility.
Internal life is a hierarchy of genes within cells and cells within organisms: External life is a hierarchy of individuals within groups, and groups within the species.
Biologically, the individual organism is a concept of dubious utility, because it is so difficult to define satisfactorily.
An organism is the physical unit associated with a single life cycle.
Each discipline of knowledge generates its own philosophies, and contributes to overall understanding: But one discipline, on its own, provides only limited viewpoints. Knowledge is multi-disciplinary.
All human races are in competition to survive ... and races which are better stanced strategically, relative to present and future conditions, are most likely to survive. It follows that reliable knowledge of the future has high survival-value.
We are transfinite beings. We use time for our purposes, but we are not bound by it: We use space for our purposes, but we are not bound by it.
As transfinite sovereign beings, we have no limitations. The limitations, which we believe we have, are of our own creation. To believe is to create. When we cease to believe that we have limitations, we will no longer have limitations.
We are qualitative beings and we express ourselves qualitatively: To do this, we use the qualities of time and space.
As we make use of time and space, we tend to enumerate and quantify ... but the essence of qualities is transfinite, unenumerable, and unquantifiable.
13y 'qualities', we refer to all the aspects of life ... beauty, courage, nobility, selflessness, compassion, love, mind, justice, integrity, curiosity, devotion, kindness, loyalty, happiness, humour, initiative, wisdom, confidence, knowledge, insight, intuition, and so on through an infinitely long list of qualities. Even finity, time, space, energy and light are qualities ... and all these are of us, of our species.
Transfinitely, everything is here and now. Past and future are being created by us now. We need to revise our thinking completely. As we mature mentally, we progressively slough off prior assumptions, preconceptions and dogmas ... and we enter upon our inheritance, as free and absolute sovereign beings.
Much knowledge brings wisdom, and frees the will ... and empowers the will to exercise itself.
Much knowledge grows and changes subtlely from the role of observing to the role of creating: Much knowledge manifests as much ability.
We need to grow up mentally, from our immature powerlessness and inadequacy, to a mature possession of our absoluteness and nowness.
The mentally immature are 'on automatic' and, like robots, they can only operate in terms of time and space. But the mentally mature have no need of constrictive programmes and operating parameters ... they are free to do what they want. The mature human is a transfinite being who uses time-space and is not subject to it.
We are in process of incorporealising our bodies to transfinite form. Self-realised persons live their lives transfinitely. Of course, most observers see only the outward physical form, and not the incorporeal transfinite form.
Fvery description contributes causatively to that which it describes.
To extend a description is a creative act. The elaboration, or alternative statement, of a description, is a creative act.
Truth is a function of viewpoint ... that is, of individual perception. Viewpoints change from individual to individual, and from time to time.
Truth is a feeling, of certainty or conviction or belief, that a particular viewpoint is correct. Truth also involves a revulsion against falseness, deceit, lying, dishonesty, hypocrisy, sophistry, casuistry and unprincipled persuasion.
Truth changes according to its many facets, but the transfinite spirit of truth does not change.
The spirit of truth is of priceless value to our species. It provides wonderful intuitive guidance and has great pragmatic usefulness ... and is central to our morality.
Understanding, as to what an event is, changes over time.
No event can be fixed unalterably in descriptive terms ... that is, no event can be fixedly and unalterably described.
Every event changes descriptively over time: Descriptions of the 'same event' change over time.
It cannot be said that any historical event is unchanging, for the essence of an event is perceptual ... that is, it derives its character and meaning from those who perceive it. No two people can ever describe the 'same event'.
The quality, essence and truth, of an historical event, exist as much in the present as in the past.
Every description is essentially qualitative and uniquely personal to the describer, and to each person who interprets the description.
Perceptors, relators, translators and interpreters of news, all contribute creatively to the events which they describe.
It is the qualitative aspects of past events which change over time. Quantitative aspects (such as the Richter scale rating of an earthquake, or numbers killed) do not change. However, the qualitative meaning of quantities changes over time. All events are essentially qualitative.
The reason why past events change in perception over time, is that events are qualitatively perceptive by nature: No event exists independently of qualitative perception ... and no two acts of qualitative perception are the same.
The qualitative aspects of perception are transfinite: They are not affected by time ... that is, they are of a timeless category.
From a temporal viewpoint, qualitative descriptions change ... but, transfinitely, qualitative descriptions are timeless creative acts.
A transfinite (mainset) understanding comprehends its finite subset, but finite (subset) understanding does not comprehend its transfinite mainset.
The most important present aspect of human development is the ongoing metamorphosis from finite consciousness to transfinite consciousness ... that is, of the transition from a finite species to a transfinite species. This transitional process is speeding up exponentially.
As we evolve to a transfinite species, our perception widens and changes ... and we live in a different universe.
Quantity is of counting and measurement: Quality is of insight, intuition and vibes.
Those, who perceive in terms of quantity, are of a different mindset to those who perceive in terms of quality.
Those, who perceive everything in qualitative terms, also see quantitative aspects in qualitative terms. Those, who perceive everything in quantitative terms, either don't perceive qualitative aspects or they believe that they are only significant to the extent that they are quantifiable.
Obsession with enumeration and quantification is characteristic of the computer age, and of modern materialism.
The modern business manager says to his assistants ... 'put a number on it' and 'if you can't put a number on it, find a way to do so'.
In business, the bottom line (profits) is in numbers ... and all the lines above it are required to be in numbers. But, how do we put a number on the asset value of human beings?: Humans are not even mentioned among the assets listed in the Balance Sheet!
The task and area of expertise of scientists is to observe, explore and discover ... and to report to the community (n what they have observed, explored and discovered.
Lost scientists are not philosophers. Scientists, for the most part, are concerned with the detailed data of a partcular specialised area of scientific activity. They are .Rained as specialist fact-gatherers, rather than as philo.1ophers. Scientists largely operate in the micro, while 1hilosophers operate mainly in the macro. We should not assume that all scientists are best qualified to think out the wider implications of their discoveries and obervations. Some scientists are good philosophers and good thinkers, but many of them are not.
Creation is in the striving: As soon as a thing is finished, it begins to die.
Mat, which is finished, holds perfect for a while, and then proceeds to decay and disperse.
Tie rise of an empire is in its building, and the fall of an empire is in the decay of that which was built.
Every thing constructed is ultimately destructed.
Construction is dynamic: The completed state is static.
Tie life-force, which surges during construction, subsides and loses momentum at completion.
The forces of destructive-change, which mix with and enliven the cohesive building process, depart at the moment of completion. A finished work becomes predominantly cohesive and static.
A communal effort, of creative building, accesses and draws upon unlimited primaeval sources of power. Completion seems to switch off this power flow. A people are strongest when they are creating. For instance, when they are building a cathedral, they are very strong: But, when the cathedral is finished, their creative life-force wanes, unless re-engaged in other challenging community projects.
The guardianship and maintenance, of a completed work, are functions of cohesion and defence. At completion, pettifogging establishment and bureaucratic static forces tend to take over, and the vital forces of change and challenge move elsewhere.
It is far more invigorating and strengthening, to a people, for them to build a new republic, rather than maintaining an old monarchy. Loyalty to an old monarchy may be honourable, but it is not invigorating or strengthening: It lacks creative life-force. Survival-success is the paramount concern of any people.