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Network Propositions
11000 - 11199


11000
Incoming and absorbed insolation are factored latitudinally as follows:

Degrees of latitude
0 30 60 90
Incoming 850 740 470 350
Absorption (atmosphere and surface) 570 530 260 120


11001
The largest fraction of the heat energy which the atmosphere receives, for maintaining its circulation, is derived from the condensation of water vapour originating primarily from oceanic evaporation.


11002
Jet streams of wind occur mainly in the zone of prevailing westerlies above the lower troposphere and, in most cases, reach maximum intensity near the tropopause. Jet streams usually coincide with the regions of greatest storminess in the lower troposphere.


11003
Cyclones form mainly in close proximity to jet streams, that is, in strongly baroclinic regions where there is a large increase of wind with altitude.


11004
The synoptic method of weather forecasting involves the study of synchronous observations at a network of stations, at least 10 kms apart.


11005
Speaking in generalised global terms, the last period of glaciation ended 10,000 years ago. It is noted, however, that it ended about 9,000 years ago in Fennoscandia and less than 8,000 years ago in north-central Canada.


11006
The average depth of the world's seas and oceans is approximately 12,500 feet (3,800 metres). During periods of ice-age glaciation, world sea-levels drop by approximately 600-650 feet (180-200 metres) ... that is, by approximately 5%.


11007
Researches indicate that 20,000 years ago (during the last ice-age), ice covered about 27% of the Earth's surface, compared with 10% at present. The indications are that non-ocean waters approximated 25.0 million cubic miles, compared with 8.6 million cubic miles at present. It appears that, compared with the present, ice-age ice increases threefold in volume (at peak) and non-ice land-waters also increase threefold in volume (at peak).


11008
Career science depends not only on research but also on the ability to market ideas and to establish and maintain a scientific reputation.


11009
The law of excluded middle (A or not-A) is true when precise symbols are employed but it is not true when symbols are vague, as in fact all symbols are.


11010
Fuzzy logic' is multivalue logic.


11011
Fuzzy logic' involves reasoning with 'fuzzy' sets.


11012
Fuzziness recognises infinite shades of gray between black and white. It may mean that there is an infinite array of options, and it may mean analog instead of binary. It may mean all that a trial lawyer or judge leaves out when he says 'just answer yes or no'.


11013
That which is real is uncertain: That which is certain is unreal.


11014
Unlike the Aristotelian theory that recognises statements as 'true' or 'false', or 'l' or 'O' as in digital computerisation, fuzzy logic is capable of expressing linguistic terms such as 'maybe false' or 'sort of true'. In general, fuzzy logic, when applied to computers, allows them to emulate the human reasoning process, quantify imprecise information, make decisions based on vague and incomplete data ... yet, by applying a 'defuzzification' process, arrive at definite conclusions.


11015
In the fuzziest case, a thing equals its opposite. (Note: This is also the case in absolute logic).


11016
Fuzzy logic is prehensive logic, as dichotomous thinking is replaced by prehensive thinking.


11017
The decision rule of prehensive thinking is ... 'I'll do it if it feels right'.


11018
Artificially, words and concepts seek to cut the universe-integer into pieces.


11019
Digital computerisation tends to digitise our thinking.


11020
Computer programming is tending to program our thinking. Our minds create computer programs, but we then allow them to program our minds. It is as if we create a mind virus which then infects us.


11021
There seems to be a human tendency to create models and programs and then to credit them with more powers and qualities than warranted by their design.


11022
Many fuzzy-system researchers expect that fuzzy logic will enable the development of computer systems which adjust to people, rather than the reverse.


11023
According to Duhem, no scientific law can be said to be true or false, because every accepted scientific law has equally acceptable alternatives.


11024
Duhem observed that the symbols and concepts used in scientific laws are always too simple to represent completely the phenomena and their connections; hence the laws must always be provisional.


11025
Mach said that scientific theory is not the discovery of real things, apart from our sensations, but a device for predicting their course. In effect, Mach is saying that scientific theory is prediction theory.


11026
To Mach, mathematics and logic are seen as explaining the meaning of terms tautologically (true by internal consistency, rather than by factual verification) but telling us nothing about how things are in the world.


11027
Important concepts of this propositional network include:


11028
The species expresses in time-space but it programs itself transfinitely.


11029
Our species is self-created: Our species creates its own genes. By genetic engineering we consciously enter and participate in the species' self-creation process.


11030
Genetic engineering accesses transfinite creation and transfinite awareness.


11031
The gene-species is an absolute integer. That which affects the gene-species affects it absolutely.


11032
Our genes are essentially transfinite. That which affects our gene-future affects our gene-past.


11033
Genetic engineers can turn time back and forth, like pages of a book. Instead of being subject to time, we now find that time is subject to us.


11034
All creatures are of the Lord and He dwells wholly within each of us ... and, in the degree that a person loves the creatures of the Lord, also in that degree the person loves the Lord ... and, in that degree, the person's transgressions shall be forgiven.


11035
The wide spectrum of vibe-bands includes, inter alia,:

When one tunes-in to the thoughts of countless minds, one operates on the thinking band. When one senses and acts intuitively and when one senses the vibes of other persons and things, one is operating on the intuitive band. During hours of sleep, one may tune-in to the astral band ... where one voluntarily helps others, and one empathises with the helped, and helper and helped become one during the giving of the help. When one is receptive to the higher spiritual influences and personalities, one operates on the spiritual band. When one is overwhelmed by the primaeval id, one is operating on the id band. When one is under the influence of strong emotions, one operates on the emotive band.


11036
Modes linked to vibe bands include, inter alia,:


11037
Perspectivism is the philosophical position that all truth is truth from or within a particular perspective. The perspective may be a point of view set by such things as the nature of our sensory apparatus and genetic inheritance, or it may be thought to be bound by culture, history, language, education, class, experience, personality or gender. Since there are a great number of perspectives, there are also a great number of different families of truths.


11038
Perspectivism may be seen as a philosophical technique for disolving the presumption that there can be objective knowledge.


11039
Objectivity may be a disguise for power or authority in both academia and in the practice of science.


11040
On the one hand, we have objectivity, realism and conservatism: On the other hand, we have perspectivism, idealism and liberalism.


11041
Postmodernists and existentialists may see logical or rational thought as the attempted imposition of suspect dichotomies on the natural flux of events.


11042
Postmodernism is usually seen as a reaction against a naive and earnest confidence in progress, and against confidence in objective or scientific truth.


11043
Post-structuralism opposes the reduction of human phenomena to lawlike generalisations, and it celebrates the formless and subjective and spontaneous.


11044
Post-structuralism denies fixed meanings and denies any correspondence between language and the world, or any fixed reality or truth or fact as object of enquiry.


11045
Chomsky's view (that unless a child comes bundled with the right kind of software, it cannot catch on to the grammar or language as it in fact does) accords with the view that we are genetically programmed to perceive how and as we perceive.


11046
Semiotics is the study of symbolic systems, and includes:


11047
Developmentally, it is helpful to explore and experience the various vibe-bands and modes ... and to learn to distinguish between them, and to learn how to 'tune-in' and 'tune-out'.


11048
Since 1979, global temperatures have been measured by satellites: These measurements indicate that global temperatures have not increased over the past 18 years.


11049
In 1995, the European meteorological institutes told the IPCG (the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change) that their records showed that, between 1951 and 1990, temperatures were within the range of natural variation.


11050
Our absolute species creates itself and creates its future.


11051
By virtue of the absoluteness of our species, each individual participates in the creation of the future.


11052
Our journey to future is a journey of self-exploration and extension of our absolute being.


11053
Only by empathising with our species may we know its future.


11054
The Lord Absolute can understand itself by our agency, but more than reason is required in order to achieve this understanding. The spirit of the Lord can only be understood by the spirit.


11055
To the extent that we live-out a belief, we imbue that belief with reality and truth.


11056
I perceive the essence of reality not as density or as physicality but as those aspects of existence which have meaning and utility to individuals.


11057
Coherentism is the view that a body of propositions may be known without a foundation in certainty, but by their interlocking strength.


11058
This present propositional network has coherence and interlocking strength ... and it has practical value as an aid to prediction.


11059
When I speak of methodology, I am reminded of Feyerabend's observation that 'anything goes in discovery' ... and, after all, I am into discovery ... into discovery of the future. When finalising my annual predictions I use insight, intuition and prehension, retaining this and discarding that. But, nevertheless, prior to this point of final selection I find methods useful. Thus my prediction processes proceed by method, insight, intuition and prehension ... and all this tempered by common sense.


11060
Although some mathematical understanding of the Absolute may be gained, via the work of Cantor and others, understanding of the spirit of the Absolute cannot be acquired by rational and analytical means, but only by intuitive absorption within the process.


11061
According to Brentano, it is the intentionality or directedness of mental states that marks off the mental from the physical.


11062
There is always an available ploy, for means are infinite.


11063
It is often unwise to rely entirely on reason, for one can rationalise virtually anything.


11064
Foucault perceived all social relations, fundamentally, as relationships of power, and usually infused with sadism.


11065
I have been asked what I mean by 'existence'. By that term, I mean 'all that is'.


11066
Atoms communicate by passing electrons from one to another ... that is, by a flow of energy. May we not equate energy with communication? where there is energy, there is interchange and interchange is communication.


11067
Every part of a perfect whole is perfect by virtue of the perfection of the whole.


11068
We are, each of us, perfect by virtue of the perfection of the Absolute.


11069
Obvious answers to problems are often seized upon and treated as undoubted truths.


11070
Generally, people become obsessed with obvious evidence.


11071
In the past, many scientists have drawn obvious but erroneous conclusions: Many still do so.


11072
There are usually explanations other than the seemingly obvious explanation. The moral is to look carefully for other explanations.


11073
In search of truth, it is often rewarding to examine the assumptions supporting popular wisdoms.


11074
Most conclusions are arrived at on the basis of inconclusive evidence ... that is, on the basis of incomplete and/or biased information.


11075
Popular wisdoms tend to depreciate and lose value over time: They need repairs, maintenance, alterations and from time to time a complete overhaul and, eventually, replacement with a new model.


11076
Some popular wisdoms are well past their 'use by date' and are in urgent need of replacement.


11077
In the same way that there is always a better method to be found, there is always a better explanation to be found.


11078
The enlargement and intensification of the stratospheric deinsolation layer (due to increased volcanism) has consequences in three phases, as follows:


11079
The bond albedo determines the energy balance of a planet and is defined as the fraction of the total incident solar energy that the planet reflects back into space.


11080
The present bond albedo for Earth is 0.33 (C.F. Venus at 0.76).


11081
As the Venus bond albedo is 0.76, over three-quarters of incoming solar heat is reflected back into space. This factor alone would indicate a low surface temperature ... but the surface temperature is actually a very high 850 degrees F. It is probable that a thermo-nuclear core explosion is the cause of Venus' high surface temperature.


11082
When making an accurate prediction, the predictor empathises with that which is predicted. Accurate prediction is, by its very nature, empathic.


11083
Good science is prediction science ... that is, science which enables us to make accurate predictions.


11084
Propositions which contribute to the making of accurate predictions contain aspects of predictory truth.


11085
One of Frege's logical insights was that a concept is analogous to a mathematical function.


11086
Sellars saw thought as a kind of inner speech.


11087
Our species equates existence: It is an absolute species. As each and all of an absolute's aspects are integral and integrated, to have insight into one aspect is to have insight into the whole. In my work, I seek insight into the mental aspect of the species, thereby gaining insight into the species as a whole.


11088
Needs, will and faith are the determinants of values.


11089
According to Cratylus, reality is utterly particular (one individual event, one moment of time, one individual thing after another) ... and any attempt to categorise reality would be like trying to cage the winds. The flux of nature cannot be captured in words, and nothing can be truly affirmed.


11090
By reason of the oven or El Niño effect, causing increased evaporation of ocean-waters and increased rainfall, there is a transfer of ocean-waters to land-waters, and the level of global ocean-waters is falling by 2-3 centimetres per annum.


11091
Faith feeds upon itself. It may begin with faith which is seemingly faith in something else but, essentially, faith is 'faith in faith' ... faith in itself ... standalone substantive faith. Faith is quiet will ... the will of silent utterance. The Absolute is a quiet presence of implicit faith.


11092
We, the human species, are absolute ... and, if we decide to survive physically, we will survive physically.


11093
Before Earth 'does a Venus', we may colonise on Mars or elsewhere.


11094
In prediction science, we need to be constantly aware that we (the human race) create our future ... and that the future is only preordained if we create it so.


11095
The loyalties of a chivalrous person are determined by that person's affections.


11096
Chivalrous behaviour stems from honouring the God which is in every person.


11097
Vaihinger said that what is untenable as an hypothesis can be useful and even necessary as a fiction.


11098
According to Vaihinger, humans need to supplement reality by an idealised and often simplified world. Fictions help to cope with problems in science, metaphysics, theology, social ideals, and morality; they can work as if true, even though they are known to be false.


11099
Veblen said that a free person must be able to exert a causality on things, or else his freedom is only an absurdity.


11100
Fictional concepts which prove useful become accepted and believed as pragmatic fictions and then as reality.


11101
Feyerabend said that it is advisable to let one's inclinations go against reason in any circumstances ... and science may benefit from it. This view is central to Feyerabend's epistemological anarchism.


11102
In his 'Against method' (1974), Feyerabend maintained that the viewpoint of epistemological anarchism could not only motivate a proliferation of scientific theories but it could also effect a strongly pluralistic society and provide our perhaps 'only chance to achieve a humanity we are capable of, but have never fully realised'.


11103
The further one proceeds with the collection of knowledge, the easier the process of collection becomes.


11104
Energy is a means to life, communication and self realisation: It is a means to expression and creativity.


11105
All energy is communication: Energy equates communication.


11106
A chain of communication is a chain of energy sinks.


11107
There is no light/energy without both an emitter and a receiver.


11108
Only an energy sink can receive light. That which emits light cannot receive light during emission.


11109
Singularity is an unexpressed, zero-energy condition.


11110
That, which is unexpressed, acts as an energy-sink.


11111
A black-hole is an energy-sink: It sucks energy into a condition of singularity: It transfinitises energy.


11112
As Earth expands volumetrically, the large continents stand ever higher at their central parts furthest from the sea ... and these higher areas receive compensating isostatic under-accretions which add as much additional depth down into the mantle as their additional height above the mean surface level.


11113
Major temperature differences and major ocean-level differences characterise the ups and downs of the quaternary ice-age cycles. The difference in global mean annual temperature between a glacial and an interglacial is approximately 14 degrees C ... and the difference in ocean-levels is 180-200 metres.


11114
Extensive flooding and build-up of land waters occurs during ice-age re-entry ... and 'El Niño' climate occurs in this phase. Earth is now at ice-age re-entry.


11115
During the last ice-age, huge lakes formed in Western USA, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, Asiatic Russia, central Africa, and central Australia. From now on, we may expect to see signs of similar lake formation, accompanied by increased rainfall in the areas concerned.


11116
At present, of the 55% of solar radiation reaching the ground, 5% is being reflected back into space, leaving 50% absorbed by the ground. At an ice-age nadir, of the 55% of solar radiation reaching the ground, 17% is reflected back into space, leaving 38% absorbed by the ground.


11117
The following table shows temperature, albedo, solar ray absorption, and solar ray reflection estimates which we may expect on ice-age re-entry:

Global Mean Temp. Deg C Earth Albedo Index % of solar rays reflected by ground into space % of solar rays absorbed by ground
14 .34 5 50
12 .36 7 48
10 .38 9 46
8 .41 11 44
6 .44 13 42
4 .47 15 40
2 .50 17 38


11118
The estimates of global albedo, for the present 14 deg. C mean temperature, and for an ice-age nadir 2 deg. C mean temperature, are as follows:

Present 14 deg. C mean
10% ice/snow x .7 .07
90% other x .3 .27
Total .34
Nadir 2 deg. C mean
30% ice/snow x .7 .21
70% other x .41 .29
Total .50


11119
The phased effects of increased volcanism are as follows:

Note: When core-explosion heat reaches the Earth's surface, a Venus-type scenario will develop.


11120
A prediction may be seen as a plan of what the species proposes or intends to do in future.


11121
A prediction may be seen as the most probable of a number of possible future outcomes.


11122
Entrepreneurs seek laissez-faire environments for their business operations. They see economic and ecological controls as inhibiting the range and success of their business operations.


11123
Ecological controls often reduce the economic well-being of peoples subject to such controls.


11124
The ice-age and radiation vectors indicate that much human life will go underground within the next 100 years.


11125
The core-explosion vector indicates the advent of a Venus-type scenario on Earth in about 200,000-300,000 years, and the end of organic life on Earth.


11126
According to Duhem, a common-sense law (such as 'paper is inflammable') is correctly said to be either true or false ... but no scientific law can be said to be true or false because every accepted scientific law has equally acceptable alternatives. The symbols used in scientific laws are always too simple to represent completely the phenomena and their connections; hence, the laws must always be provisional.


11127
Malraux said ... 'man is what he does'. Participation was the first and necessary stage in Malraux's search for definition. By examining what man does, one may begin to define man's powers.


11128
Lopatin said that phenomena are the direct realisation, by the spirit, of its nature.


11129
Le Roy maintained that scientific 'facts' and laws are arbitrary constructs designed to meet our needs and to facilitate effective action in pursuit of those needs.


11130
Kireevsky said that 'believing thinking' was man's infallible guide to wholeness of the spirit. 'Believing thinking' strives to integrate all of man's spiritual and mental forces into a living whole.


11131
To Khomyakov, the church was not an institution but a living organism of truth and love.


11132
Khomyakov said that Hegel had the crucial fault of accepting the laws of understanding, instead of the law of the all-embracing spirit.


11133
Khomyakov professed faith in the integrity of the spirit.


11134
Existence is an integrated whole ... that is to say, existence is an integer. Existence, being without limitations and being all-inclusive, is an absolute integer.


11135
Thoreau opined that all good things are wild and free.


11136
Thoreau said that the experience of nature becomes as much a discipline for the moral will as a stimulant to creative imagination.


11137
It was said of Pythagoras and his followers that their whole life was ordered to following God ... and that following God was the governing principle of their philosophy.


11138
Rilke said that we must appropriate unto ourselves what is inflicted from without: By so doing, we will conquer life.


11139
Rilke said that all social action is an attempt to escape from defective selfhood.


11140
Poincar6 observed that, regardless of what our senses tell us, mathematically things equal to the same thing are equal to one another.


11141
When we deal with mathematical abstractions, we tend to put our non-rational senses in abeyance: We tend to exclude them.


11142
It was Poincare's view that, in a certain sense, theories are linguistic conventions.


11143
There are always solutions to questions and problems, but solutions are not always rational solutions. Problems of life always provide their own resolutions: They resolve themselves.


11144
A self-conscious personality, a soul, is an absolute being.


11145
We are absolute beings and we cannot lose or escape our absoluteness.


11146
C.D.Broad leaned to the view that moral properties are intuited by a special moral sense.


11147
According to J Bronowski, some artists (such as William Blake) have the gift of being able to catch the universal themes that sound in the peculiarities of their time. Bronowski said that Blake's timeless importance lay in his ability to penetrate the true meaning of his time by the special gift of the imagination.


11148
J. Bronowski emphasised that science and art must be looked at together.


11149
L.E.J. Brouwer (the founder of the mathematical intuitionist school) contended that mathematicians work with mental constructions which are governed by self-evident primitive notions (primordial intuition).


11150
A. Camus wrote 'life will be lived all the more fully because it has no meaning'.


11151
L. Brunschvicg said that the limiting conditions of natural phenomena are conceived as restraints imposed by mind on its own freedom.


11152
K. Burke said that the main ideal of criticism is to use all that there is to use. He said 'first genus, then differential'. 'The strategy in common is the genus. The range or scale or spectrum of particularisations is the differentiae'.


11153
In psychology, the cognitive approach sets up, as an important object of study, the behaviour of organisms as they react to stimuli. An important concept of cognitive psychology is 'mediation'. A stimulus impinges upon the organism, which then processes it in some way and responds. J.S. Bruner, a pioneer of cognitive psychology, tried to develop a psychology which was responsive to real life and real life problems.


11154
Each one of us does what he or she has to do and is most fitted to do, in accordance with the will of the species.


11155
As demand (human wants and needs) cannot be controlled, supply cannot be controlled. Attempts to curb supply to some demands will be, at best, only partially successful. Demand will always win out over controls.


11156
To be devotedly human and to celebrate the human condition is a treasure beyond price: It is our greatest and our saddest joy.


11157
Van Gogh said 'the best way to know God is to love many things'.


11158
Van Gogh said 'I shall be poor; I shall be a painter; I want to remain human'.


11159
As God is wholly in each one of us, to love each and every being is to love Him ... and this is the essence of the first commandment. One, who is truly and compassionately human, is very close to heaven.


11160
When you are consciously and fully aware that every thought and action is of and by God, then you are in heaven.


11161
Nano machines, with built-in computers, will be able to:


11162
The transition, from a worker-earner society to a non-worker nano society will be characterised by increasing unemployment and a widening of the rich-poor gap. Nano technology will be an extension and intensification of automation and computerisation.


11163
Life is geared to scarcity and to the economics of scarcity ... and this scarcity derives not only from the requirements of expanding populations but also from the insatiable wants, greeds and fears of humankind. Nano technology will provide the potential for a plenteous work-free society, but human nature will prevent the realisation of that potential.


11164
Governments will seek to employ the best nano-scientists and nano-research facilities for military and geopolitical ends.


11165
Powerful corporations will seek to monopolise nanotechnologies and to patent them and to maximise the profits of commercial applications.


11166
Nano production technology will enable on-the-spot production (of virtually anything) and the global needs of transportation will be greatly reduced.


11167
It is a key point that nano-machines will operate close to the localities of demand-need.


11168
Nano production will be carried out in urban locations and demand for farm production will be greatly reduced.


11169
Using very cheap inorganic inputs, nano production processes will not require farm produce inputs.


11170
Nano production will result in large reductions of the value of rural land.


11171
As governments and large corporations monopolise nano potentials, the major part of the world's population will be deprived of most of the benefits which could be available. Those who control nano production will require selling prices beyond the purchasing power of most people.


11172
The nano vector is a function of creative intelligence ... and creative intelligence is generally independent of the needs of the bulk of humanity.


11173
Nanotechnology will result in a shifting of conscious awareness and mental abilities from humans to nano lifeforms. Long-term, life will metamorphose nanologically.


11174
The nano vector indicates that human life may be seeded, from Earth, to other parts of the universe.


11175
Protein engineering is the first major step towards a biomolecular engineering capability, which can structure anything, atom by atom.


11176
Proteins are complex nitrogenous compounds which occur in all living cells. They include milk casein, egg albumen, haemoglobin, keratin from wool or hair, muscle proteins from meat, the hormones insulin and thyroglobulin, enzymes such as pepsin, trypsin and many others. In plants, protein is mainly concentrated in the seeds, as in the cereal grain6 and beans.


11177
As early as 1820 it was recognised that the proteins could be broken down or hydrolised into a number of 'building block' units. These were called amino acids. In this process, a high molecular weight molecule is converted into a number of small molecular weight amino acids.


11178
A polypeptide is a linear condensation of amino acids which, alone or associated with others, forms a protein molecule.


11179
The protein molecule contains both basic (amino) and acidic (carboxyl) groups and is therefore an amphoteric substance which can combine with either acids or bases.


11180
Biochemists are already working with nanomachines, made chiefly of protein. Protein is the main engineering material of living cells.


11181
In modern gene-synthesis, genetic engineers build specific DNA molecules by combining molecules in a particular order. By using gene machines to write, and restriction enzymes to cut and paste, genetic engineers can write and edit whatever DNA messages they choose.


11182
Genetic engineers have now programmed bacteria to make proteins ranging from human growth hormone to rennin, an enzyme used in the making of cheese.


11183
An enzyme changes its target's structure, then moves on: A hormone affects its target's behaviour only so long as both remain stuck together. Other proteins serve basic mechanical functions: Some push and pull, some act as cords or struts, and parts of some molecules make excellent bearings.


11184
Ribosomes are proof that nanomachines, built of protein and RNA, can be programmed to build complex molecules.


11185
A number of large corporations are researching the development of bio-chips for bio-computers. They are seeking to emulate the processes and achievements of the human brain.


11186
Molecular engineering capabilities are moving quickly to the stage of 'atom by atom' construction.


11187
In their natural behaviour, enzymes show the way for molecular engineering: They assemble large molecules (of DNA, RNA, proteins, fats, hormones and chlorophyll) from the small molecules around them.


11188
Advances in the technologies of medicine, space, computation, production and warfare depend on our ability to develop molecular assemblers (nanomachines which can construct any molecular matter from basic atom 'building-blocks').


11189
Different RNA molecules replicate at different rates, depending on their lengths and subunit patterns.


11190
Biochemists can now make RNA and protein from off-the-shelf chemicals, without help from life.


11191
Unlike test-tube RNA, viral RNA must also direct bacterial ribosomes to build protein devices that enable it to escape old bacteria and then survive and to enter new bacteria. This capability requires viral RNA molecules to be about 4,500 subunits long.


11192
In the evolutionary process, order emerges through the variation and selection of molecular replicators.


11193
Genes, memes, bacteria and viri can all replicate and evolve.


11194
All primates lack enzymes for making vitamin C, an omission shared by only the guinea pig and the fruit bat.


11195
All known life shares a common ancestor.


11196
The tools of the future exist now only as ideas ... that is, as strange attractors.


11197
Evolutionarily, genes build ever more elaborate replicative mechanisms to aid their survival.


11198
Ideas mutate, replicate and compete: Ideas evolve.


11199
Ideas compete for scarce resources, namely human attention and human action.


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