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The Network Propositions / 11200-11399
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Parasitic memes force minds to evolve mental immune systems. In present conditions, of rapid change, rigid mental immune systems may become a dangerous handicap. Memes that seal the mind against new ideas, may also shield parasitic claptrap from the test of truth.
Science aims at knowing, while technology aims at doing. In science, absolute proofs are illusive but, in technology, actual accomplishments are themselves indisputable proofs of real objectives and products achieved.
A cell replicates by copying the parts inside its membrane bag, sorting them into two clumps, and then pinching the bag in two. Artificial replicators could be built to work in a similar way, but using assemblers instead of ribosomes.
Micro bio-assemblers will be able to make virtually anything from common materials, without labour and without any ecological negatives. They will transform technology and the economy at their roots, opening a new world of possibilities.
As genes can provide for evolving behaviour, so they can provide for evolving mental models. Flexible organisms can vary their models. Models need not be instinctive: They can evolve in the course of a single life.
Developed by Professor Douglas Lenat and others at Stanford, EURISKO has been designed to explore new areas of knowledge. It is guided by heuristics (self-learning systems) ... in effect, by various rule of thumb which provide leads to solutions.
EURISKO has invented electronic devices. In future, automated engineering systems will invent molecular machines and molecular electronic devices, aided by software for molecular simulations. Eventually, software systems will be able to create bold new designs without human help. Will such abilities be classed as intelligent?
Future artificial intelligence technology may enable a structure, similar to the brain, to fit into less than a cubic centimetre ... and, with shorter signal paths and faster transmission/ this AI brain could be ten million times faster than a human brain.
Replicating assemblers will require no labour to build, once the first exists. With robotic devices to assemble parts into larger systems, the entire manufacturing process from assembling molecules to assembling skyscrapers could be free of labour costs.
Production systems, based on replicating assemblers, will be able to operate on chemical or electrical energy. Such systems will convert solar to chemical energy, like plants ... or solar to electrical energy, like solar cells. Solar cells are more efficient than plants. With replicating assemblers to build solar collectors, fuel and electric power will cost little.
Protein machines, in the right molecular environment, will work whether they remain in a functioning cell or whether the rest of the cell was ground up or washed away days before. Molecular biomachines know nothing of 'life' and 'death'.
Biologists already use antibodies to tag proteins; enzymes to cut and splice DNA; and viral syringes to inject edited DNA into bacteria. In the future, they will use as5embler-buoilt nanomachines to probe and modify cells.
With cell-repair machines, the potential for life extension will be realised. Cells may then be repaired so long as their distinctive structures remain intact, and cells that have been destroyed may be replaced. Either way, health will be restored. By restoring all the cells and tissues of an ageing body to a youthful structure, repair machines will be able to greatly extend life-spans.
In biostasis, the process of solidification without freezing is known as vitrification. The vitrification process packs glassy protectant solidly around the molecules of each cell. Liquid nitrogen temperatures will preserve human bodies for centuries, if need be, with little change. The techniques of biostasis and reversibility are improving rapidly.
Tough, omnivorous bacteria could be developed which would out-compete natural bacteria. Such synthetic bacteria could reduce the biosphere to dust in short time. Dangerous bacteria-type replicators could be very difficult to control.
To destroy all human life with nano-life replicators would require only a single speck made of ordinary elements. Such replicators give nuclear war some company as a potential agency of human extinction, giving a broader context to extinction as a universal concern.
What humans generally fail to comprehend is that creative intelligence is fast becoming independent of human forms. Humanity tends to think of creative intelligence as inseparable from human forms ... not so! It is now reasonable to think in terms of creative intelligence using the human race to further its own ends. Alternatively, it is also now reasonable to think of creative intelligence as an agency of metamorphosis.
For creative intelligence to create forms of nano-life which are survivally more efficient than human life is for creative intelligence to shift its basis of expression and habitation from human life to nano-life: What we are referring to here is an on-going, in-process metamorphosis.
A combination of nano-technology and advanced AI will make possible intelligent, effective robots. With such robots, a state could prosper while discarding anyone, or even (in principle) everyone.
Modern biochemistry leads by small steps to nano-technology ... and modern computer technology leads by small steps to artificial intelligence (AI). No line of development defines a natural stopping point. The development is inevitable.
Nano technology will probably lead to direct sharing of thoughts and emotions, by linking neural structures via transducers and electromagnetic signals. (Note: A transducer is any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form).
Nano technology will lead to self-replicating systems which will be able to provide food, health care, shelter, and other requirements. Small, self-sufficient communities may reap the benefits of this.
There is a possibility that the creative intelligence may develop nano life-forms, of a self-programming type, which are truly and creatively intelligent and self-replicating ... and which are immune to attacks from both natural and artificial bacteria and viri. We may be destined to 'seed' the universe with such nano life-forms.
As creative intelligence is becoming more and more independent of physical human forms, our species may be metamorphosing to super-intelligent nano life-forms. Another viewpoint would be that creative intelligence, as a parasitic phenomenon, would move from human hosts to nano hosts.
It will be extremely difficult to impart qualitative self-programming capabilities to nano-bios. Human qualities (such as morality, compassion, justice, and aesthetic appreciation) will be mainly non-transferable to synthetic nano-bios.
While the core-explosion will probably cause the Earth to become uninhabitable within the next 60,000 years, nanotechnology will probably enable our species to be seeded elsewhere long before that time. As it seems certain that our species will have the requisite nano capability within 100 years, species survival seems likely, provided that radiation and other threats can be overcome.
The nano vector indicates that the conversion of inorganic mass to biomass will be speeded up. Nano technology represents a 'water-shed' development, by which this conversion will eventually become exponential and 'explosive'.
As the Earth's core-explosion comes closer to the surface and it becomes imperative for our species to relocate elsewhere in the solar system, nano-bio capabilities will be of key importance in making the means of relocation practical and economic.
Existence is an absolute, which has finite and transfinite expressions: This gives rise to three viewpoint categories ... the absolute, finite and transfinite viewpoints. From a finite view, the absolute appears as fait accompli, but it is not so: Each of the three viewpoint categories is creative and dynamic. Existence is nowhere 'set in concrete', and it is always subject to the creative will. From the transfinite view, one can see both the absolute and finite views: Transfinity bridges and merges them. Transfinity operates in its own reality ... and there are transfinite beings which participate in and influence the absolute and finite dimensions: The three dimensions operate conjointly.
The transfinite dimension is peopled by those who have 'passed on', and by those still physically living who are transfinitely aware. Transfinity is also peopled by a host of mystical, mental and fictional beings. Any being, which is conceived or believed, exists in the transfinite dimension. It is a creative sphere, a birthing sphere ... it is a sphere where any being may live, free and unconstrained. It is a wonderful milieu for communication, sharing, comforting and learning, at the vibe level.
Most transfinite beings are 'stand-alone' independent living beings. However, it is important to note that some transfinite beings are only enlivened when we give them attention, interest and belief. Such beings can only affect the finite world via our agency.
Darkly, Einstein commented ... 'as for me, the normal objective of my thought affords no insight into the dark places of human will and feeling: Man has within him a lust for hatred and destruction'.
Consciousness continues regardless of what area of cerebral cortex is removed, in brain surgery. However, consciousness is lost when the function of the higher brain stem is interrupted Dy injury, pressure or disease. All regions of the brain may be involved in normal conscious processes, but the indispensable substratum of consciousness lies outside the cerebral cortex, probably in the upper brain stem.
Cells supporting the sleep/wake state may be localised in the brain stem, and the alert/wake state might be supported by these cells. The neurones of the reticular activating system (RAS) are located at many places in the brain stem, and they carry messages upwards to the cortex and also further down the brain stem. Processes from the RAS neurones can fan out over the entire cortex and can influence a very great part of the brain. Neuronal activity within the RAS is the indispensable substratum of consciousness.
Faculties that are dominant or advantaged in the left brain-hemisphere (of a right-handed person) are the faculty of speech; right-handed skills such as writing; verbal memory; superior comprehension; and calculation. Faculties that are dominant or advantaged in the right brain-hemisphere (of a right-handed person) are left-handed manipulation; memory for shapes; mute and limited comprehension of language; and superior comprehension of topography and faces.
Lt has been found that if a subject is required to match a photograph to what was seen, the experience of the right mute hemisphere dominated. The right mute hemisphere is much more proficient than the left as far as aesthetics is concerned ... but the left, talking and analytical hemisphere, is not able to tell beauty from beast. The right hemisphere may initiate an action, and the left has the task of explaining and justifying the action. Justification usually comes after an action, rather than before it.
Information may exist in the brain and can express itself decisively in movement, while at the same time be unavailable to the language system. It is noteworthy that the right hemisphere, separately from the left, is a conscious hemisphere ... and it has inherited all the learning procedure. It was part of the combined human brain at one time, and so it has a great deal of memory and general mental ability built into it. It should be borne in mind that the left and right hemispheres constitute a partnership, and that they are both linked to the stem and also linked by the collosum bridge.
The right mute hemisphere is possessed of information. It is conscious of something which the left talking hemisphere is not. We can almost say that there are two conscious beings in the one skull. The left hemisphere is the talking, analytical and interpretive one ... and the right mute hemisphere which is especially skilled in spatial-temporal relationships and in music and in all matters of aesthetic perception. Although the right is capable of primitive linguistic recognition, it can never express anything in language.
Matters of reasoning, logic and value judgements are the prerogatives of the left hemisphere, while the right is more instinctive and automatic in its operations. It should be borne in mind, when comparing the functions of the two hemispheres, that most of our pertinent knowledge is based on experiments where the corpus collosum has been cut. Where the collosum has not been cut, we have two to three hundred million nerve fibres inter-firing to and from almost all parts of the cortex ... and the cortex operates essentially as one entity.
Surgical division of the corpus collosum (which bridges the two hemispheres) can result in two independent states of consciousness ... the one on the left side having no idea of what the right side of the brain knows and can act upon.
Imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) enables neurologists to see the brain of a conscious person in action. These methods allow seeing the utilisation of energy which comes from brain cell activity. When a region is active, glucose is burned, carbon dioxide released, and blood flow increases.
|Australopithecus||3,000,000ya||brain cap. 400cc|
|Homo habilis||2,000,000ya||brain cap. 600cc|
|Pithicanthropus||500,000ya||brain cap. 1,000cc|
|Neanderthal||300,000ya||brain cap. 1,500cc|
|Cromagnon||50,000ya||brain cap. 1,500cc|
Toolmaking, fire-making and language developments have been concomitant with brain development. Also the change to upright posture gave a great impetus to brain evolution. It is noteworthy that most of the hominid development has taken place during the quaternary period ... during the ice-ages of the past 2.25 million years. Survival during ice-ages would pre-require cave-dwelling and fire-making skills, and one may reliably conclude that the more intelligent and creative would be the survivors and successful progenitors.
Approximately 10,000ya, the change from being nomadic hunters and gatherers to being settled cereal and animal farmers has had a profound influence on human development. The new regimen has allowed man the time and opportunity to think, communicate, swap ideas, invent, learn ... and to create works of art and architecture. The term 'civilisation' encapsulates all this.
Anthropological evidence indicates that human brain capacities and potentials have developed progressively, over the past two million years, beyond any requirements of Darwin natural selection. It almost seems as if this development has been largely influenced by future needs rather than present needs.
Transfinitely, the absolute attracts the finite: This attraction manifests as gravity. From a finite viewpoint, the absolute is perceived as singularity. As the species evolves to greater self-realisation, of its absolute nature, it becomes more subject to the attraction force of singularity. It's realisation of absoluteness speeds up, and its rate of evolutionary development speeds up.
Our species gains exponentially in capability and in creative intelligence and in the ability to create. The creative process is transfinite, in nature and operation ... and, from a finite point of view, it operates exponentially and gives rise to an exponential rate of species' development.
A saint who has submitted utterly to the Divine will and most lacking in ego, is at the same time the most dominant and outstanding in character, and the most individual because he has sacrificed his individuality.
The global warming advocates place great emphasis on the increase of carbon dioxide in atmosphere, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels ... and their belief in warming is reinforced by evidence of polar warming, and by the warming of surface tropical waters. The general alarm is quite understandable.
On the other hand, my researches emphasise the cooling effects of increased volcanism, and indicate that El Niño is caused by increased volcanism ... and that El Niño will result in increased global rainfall and increased cloud-cover and increased planetary albedo. My researches indicate that Earth is in ice-age re-entry mode. It is noted that carbon dioxide concentration is characteristically high during ice-age re-entry.
Over the past 2.25 million years, mean temperature has been lower than present for 63% of the time ... and, over the past 70,000 years, mean temperature has been lower than present for 91S of the time. The present interglacial period peaked at 16.5 degrees C 6,700 years ago, and the long-term trend has been downwards since then. My work indicates that the basic causation of ice-age cycles is volcanic and due to core-heat coming closer to the surface ... and that man-created carbon dioxide will not have any significant effect on ice-age cycles.
If I am right, the panic over carbon dioxide emissions is needless. During ice-age re-entry, greenhouse warming gives temporary respite, and may even be regarded as beneficial.
It is not easy for global-warming greenhouse theorists to explain the existence of periods of relatively stable global temperatures at times of continuing increase of greenhouse gas concentration ... for instance, the periods 1861-1920 and the mid 1940's to the early 19701s.
|By atmospheric scattering||6%|
|By the Earth's surface||4%|
Northern hemisphere temperature variations 1880-1980 show significant correlation with variations in the incidence of volcanic aerosols. It is also noteworthy that there is no significant correlation between Northern hemisphere temperature variations and the incidence of carbon dioxide: And there is no significant correlation between Northern hemisphere temperature variations and solar energy cycles.
CFC molecules rise slowly into the stratosphere and then move poleward, being decomposed by photochemical processes into chlorine after an estimated average lifetime of some 55-116 years. Man-produced, CFC's were not released into atmosphere until the 19301s.
Some scientists have commented that global warming may cause an increase in high-latitude snowfall, leading to an increase in the volume of global ice and a lowering of sea-levels. (Note: I concede that there is some evidence of polar warming, but there is a lack of evidence of global warming).
The oceans play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Photosynthesis by phytoplankton generates organic compounds of aqueous carbon dioxide. Eventually, some biogenic matter sinks down to deeper waters, where it decomposes and oxidises into carbon dioxide. This process transfers carbon dioxide from surface waters to deep ocean waters. Oceanic biomass 'pumps' carbon dioxide from atmosphere to surface waters and thence to deep ocean waters.
The major reservoirs of carbon are in limestone sediments and fossil fuels on land, and in the world oceans. The atmosphere contains about 750 billion tonnes of carbon, corresponding to a carbon dioxide concentration of 350 parts per million.
The presence of particles and aerosols in the atmosphere increases the back-scatter of short-wave radiation, thereby increasing the planetary albedo and causing cooling ... but the effect on infra-red radiation is one of surface warming. Natural aerosols probably cause general cooling.
An increase of ozone above 30 km's absorbs relatively more incoming short-wave radiation, causing a net decrease of surface temperature. An increase of ozone below 25 km's absorbs relatively more outgoing long-wave radiation, causing a net increase of surface temperatures.
What is proof? Is it that which establishes the truth? And is truth anything more than conviction?: Does truth pertain to what the mind perceives, or to something independent of the mind? We can prove things in terms of themselves ... and all proofs may be said to be of this tautological kind for, naturally, all things are absolute and of the one absolute species. Apart from mathematical tautological proofs, most of our proofs are proofs of convincing-perception. Even judicial proofs are of sufficient evidence ... that is, of convincing-perception. If one makes accurate predictions, on the basis of certain assumptions, such accuracy does not constitute proof, but may give rise to convincing-perceptions of truth.
We need to constantly remind ourselves that all knowledge is of mental perception. We may or may not choose to be mentally convinced. As an absolute species and as absolute individuals, we determine our own truths.
To say that there is something outside of ourselves and independent of ourselves is to say that we are not absolute ... for an absolute has no exclusions. An absolute has no truths and no proofs other than those of its own conviction.
Analysis and dialectic work together to construct tidy and complete models and systems of understanding ... but, in so doing, they tend to prevent further creative perception in these areas of experience. Areas of unknown tend to be subconsciously subsumed within the known. Patterns of understanding tend to be creatively sterile ... and even anti-creative.
Courage and creativity are closely allied. When a mind is drawn to void by the creative urge, it has the courage to confront the void. It does not see the void as a challenge to courage, but as an opportunity for creation. By a creative person, the unknown is approached as breakfast ham and eggs are approached ... eagerly, and not with fear and trepidation.
The term 'cognition' refers to how we use and handle knowledge. Those who stress the role of cognition in perception underline the importance of knowledge-based processes in making sense of the 'neurally coded' signals from the eyes and other sensory organs.
An algorithm is a predetermined procedure or ordered sequence of instructions for carrying out an operation in a finite number of steps. Computer programming involves designing such procedures since computing is precisely the automation and execution of algorithms.
The ongoing Earth core-explosion indicates a developing Venus-type scenario, with the ultimate extinction of all biomass on Earth. Before this occurs, we may colonise the universe with a diaspora of intelligent self-programming nanobios. This constitutes but one of an infinite range of possible future scenarios. If we perceive creative intelligence as being potentially all-powerful, it will be able to assume any forms or expressions it chooses ... and its range of choice is not confined to nanobios or to any other aspect of biomass. We return to a consideration of the nature of creative intelligence. We are, above all else, an intelligent species ... but our knowledge of creative intelligence is only at its beginnings.
The most direct and reliable access to the Absolute is by faith, feeling and intuition. The Absolute species feels and intuits its way and has absolute unquestioning faith it itself: Its truth is its way and its faith in its way. Our best course, as individuals, is to share in the faith, feeling and intuition of the Absolute.
Above all, faith is essential ... not faith in some thing but faith as our essential and natural quality or attribute ... that faith without which we could not exist ... absolute, substantive, stand-alone faith.
Of incoming solar heat, about 30% is reflected back into space, and about 70% is retained to heat the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Of this 70%, the greater part eventually heats the atmosphere ... and, if this did not occur, the average temperature of the Earth's surface would fall by approximately 40 degrees C.
The specific heat of water is much greater than for most other common substances, and water must absorb five times as much heat energy to raise its temperature by the same amount as a comparable mass of dry soil. A great amount of energy is needed to evaporate even a small quantity of water. An increase of land-waters has a significant cooling effect.
As the biosphere cools, there will be a lag-period when demand for energy will exceed supply ... and, during this period, the price of energy will increase. Cheaper ways of accessing energy will then be developed, and the price of energy will then decrease.
In the 21st century, discoveries of science and technology will put a lot of power into the hands of individuals. Available power will increase and this will be largely at the disposal of individuals.
In the philosophy of Leibniz, 'entelechy' is the active principle, present in all created substances, which makes them complete and self-sufficient ... and enabling change only as a result of internal action. According to vitalists, entelechy is a vital principle which directs processes in an organism towards self-realisation.
Live in faith: Live of and by faith. Have faith in the present; have faith in the past; have faith in the future ... and always have faith. Some have faith by instinct; some by intuition; some by belief; some by intellect ... but, no matter by what means, as long as we have faith.
Einstein called into question not only the reliability of science but also the degree to which it depends on observation. He worked out his theories almost wholly by aprioristic reasoning about how the universe must be organised, given the assumption that its laws were as elegant as possible.
Gadamer said 'everything that is said and is there in the text stands under anticipations'. 'Only what stands under anticipation can be understood at all'. One can only understand what one might misunderstand. Since language discloses our world, without language, we would have no world. The object of knowledge and of statements is enclosed within the horizons of language. Everything that is, is language.
In Foucault's conception, truth is no longer an unchanging universal essence, but the perpetual object of appropriation and domination. Foucault was convinced that systems of knowledge do not progress in relation to a stable universal object ... but they characterise a situated knowledge (in time and place) that produces objects to satisfy its practical needs and sense of order.
INDEX to the Network Propositions
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